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Arbuscular mycorrhizal response to adverse soil conditions

Entry, James A. and Rygiewicz, Paul T. and Watrud, Lidia S. and Donnelly, Paula K. (2002) Arbuscular mycorrhizal response to adverse soil conditions. In: Sharma, A.K. and Johri, B.N., (eds.) Arbuscular Mycorrhizae: Interactions in Plants, Rhizosphere and Soils. pp. 135-158. Science Publishers, Inc., Enfield, NH.

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Adverse conditions are a pervasive feature in both natural as well as
agronomic soils. The soil environment is constantly changing with regard
to moisture, temperature and nutrition. In addition, soil properties such
as fertility, pH and aeration are often changed to improve crop yields.
Soils have been unintentionally contaminated as a result of accidents that
occur during agronomic operations or intentionally contaminated in mining
or manufacturing operations by disposal of chemicals that are toxic
to plants and micro-organisms. Mycorrhizal associations in terrestrial
ecosystems influence organic and inorganic nutrient relationships, water
relations and carbon cycling in plants. Relatively little is known about
factors that control the vigour and extent of mycorrhization. This lack of
understanding arises in large part from the difficulty of studying the
intact association, which is a functionally and anatomically distinct structure
comprising two biologically different organisms, e.g., plants and
arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) fungi. The formation and function of
mycorrhizal relationships are affected by edaphic conditions such as soil
composition, moisture, temperature, pH, cation exchange capacity. They
are also affected by anthropogenic stressers such as heavy metals, pesticides
and soil compaction.

An organism's response to stress may involve interactions among
various avoidance and tolerance mechanisms (Taylor, 1978; Tingey and
Taylor, 1982; Tingey and Anderson, 1991). Stress avoidance mechanisms
influence the amount and rate at which stress will reach the target site in
the plant. Stress tolerance is defined as resistance via an ability "to come
to thermodynamic equilibrium to the stress" without being killed (Levitt,
1980). In this chapter, we shall review the effects of a number of soil-associated
stressers, including soil moisture, temperature, pH, heavy
metals, agricultural practices and pesticides on AM development and
function and host plant tolerance to these stresses. Several publications
have reviewed the impact of various stresses on plant-mycorrhizal
interactions (Anderson and Rygiewicz, 1991; Read, 1991; Van Duin et al, 1991;
Sylvia and Williams, 1992), which provide additional information on this subject.

Item Type: Book Section
NWISRL Publication Number: 1076
Subjects: Soil
Mass Import - autoclassified (may be erroneous)
Depositing User: Dan Stieneke
Date Deposited: 20 Nov 2010 21:55
Last Modified: 10 Nov 2016 16:16
Item ID: 818