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Infiltration and soil properties as affected by annual cropping in the northern great plains

Pikul, J.L. and Aase, J.K. (1995) Infiltration and soil properties as affected by annual cropping in the northern great plains. Agronomy Journal. 87(4):656-662.

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Fallow-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping systems may be responsible
for declines in soil organic matter and degradation of soil physical
properties. A change to annual cropping may improve or at least maintain
soil properties. Tillage and crop sequence effects on soil properties
and water infiltration were tested after 9 yr of cropping on a Dooley
sandy loam (fine-loamy, mixed Typic Argiborolls) derived in glacial till.
Annual cropping tillage of fall sweep and spring disk (AWFST), and
no tillage (AWNT) were compared with conventional tillage in wheat-fallow
(FWCT) as the control. Statistical design was a randomized complete
block with four replications. Soil samples were taken at 0.03-m
increments to a depth of 0.3 m and were used to measure organic carbon
(OC), pH, bulk density (BD), and particle size. Point resistance was
measured in 0.02-m increments. Water infiltration into dry and wet soil
was measured using a rainfall simulator. Maximum soil BD was 1.61
Mg m-3 on FWCT and 1.56 Mg m-3 on AWNT. Soil BD was not
changed by one winter of freezing and thawing. Maximum point resistance
was 2.2 MPa on FWCT and 1.7 MPa on AWNT. Cumulative 3-h
infiltration into dry soil was 52 mm for FWCT and 69 mm for AWNT.
Final infiltration rate into wet soil was 5 mm h-1 for FWCT and 6 mm
h-1 for AWNT. There was a significant difference in the depth distribution
of OC between annual crop and FWCT treatments. Mass of OC
in the top 0.09 m of soil was 1.65 kg m-2 on annual crop treatments
and 1.45 kg m-2 on FWCT. Greater amounts of OC on the annual crop
treatments compared with the FWCT attest to the beneficial aspect of
annual cropping in maintaining a level of soil quality that is greater
than FWCT. From a soil conservation perspective, no-tillage has an additional
advantage because surface cover is maintained throughout the
year, thereby reducing the potential for soil erosion.

Item Type: Article
NWISRL Publication Number: 0882
Subjects: Irrigation > Furrow irrigation > Infiltration
Mass Import - autoclassified (may be erroneous)
Depositing User: Dan Stieneke
Date Deposited: 20 Nov 2010 21:54
Last Modified: 22 Nov 2016 23:54
Item ID: 649