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Polyacrylamide in agriculture and environmental land management

Sojka, R.E. and Bjorneberg, D.L. and Entry, J.A. and Lentz, R.D. and Orts, W.J. (2007) Polyacrylamide in agriculture and environmental land management. Advances in Agronomy. 92:75-162.

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Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) has been sold since 1995 to reduce
irrigation-induced erosion and enhance infiltration. Its soil stabilizing and
flocculating properties improve runoff water quality by reducing sediments,
N, dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and total P, chemical oxygen
demand (COD), pesticides, weed seeds, and microorganisms in runoff. PAM
used for erosion control is a large (12-15 Mg mol -1) water-soluble (non-cross-linked)
anionic molecule, containing <0.05% acrylamide monomer.
In a series of field studies, PAM eliminated 80-99% (94% avg.) of sediment
in runoff from furrow irrigation, with a 15-50% infiltration increase compared
to controls on medium to fine-textured soils. Similar but less dramatic results
occur with sprinkler irrigation. In sandy soils infiltration is often unchanged
by PAM or can be slightly reduced. Typical seasonal application totals in
furrow irrigation vary from 3 to 7 kg ha -1 . Research has shown little or no
consistent adverse effect on soil microbial populations. Some evidence exists
for PAM-related yield increases where infiltration was crop-limiting, especially
in field portions having irregular slopes, where erosion prevention
eliminated deep furrow cutting that deprives shallow roots of adequate
water delivery. Modified water management with PAM shows great promise
for water conservation. High effectiveness and low cost of PAM for erosion
control and infiltration management, coupled with easier implementation
than traditional conservation measures, has resulted in rapid adoption.
About 800,000 ha of US irrigated land use PAM for erosion and/or infiltration
management. In recent years, PAM has been deployed for uses beyond
agricultural erosion control, including construction site erosion control, use
in storm water runoff ponds to accelerate water clarification, soil stabilization
and dust prevention in helicopter-landing zones, and various other high-traffic
military situations. Among the newest topics being researched is the
use of PAM to reduce ditch, canal, and pond seepage, using specific application
protocols that take advantage of its increase of water viscosity at higher

Item Type: Article
NWISRL Publication Number: 1196
Subjects: Polyacrylamide (PAM) > Water-soluble PAM (WSPAM)
Mass Import - autoclassified (may be erroneous)
Depositing User: Users 6 not found.
Date Deposited: 20 Nov 2010 21:49
Last Modified: 01 Nov 2016 15:26
Item ID: 43